Cakewalk // Documentation // SONAR X3 // Tape Emulator module (Producer only)
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ProChannel (Producer and Studio only) ► Tape Emulator module (Producer only)

A. Clipping LED B. Tape Emulator enable/disable C. Rec level (input gain) D. Noise (tape hiss) E. Tape speed F. Bias G. Link H. Playback level
Digital audio can capture audio levels up to 0dB before undesirable clipping occurs. This is known as overload. Analog tape recordings also have an upper limit, but unlike digital clipping, the signal compresses and distorts slightly as you approach the limit. There is typically a “sweet spot” of a few decibels before undesirable distortion occurs. Because tape saturation sounds pleasing to most people, recording engineers have long been using it as a creative mixing tool.
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Clipping LED. Shows if the input signal to the Tape Emulator module is clipping. If there is any distortion in the ProChannel signal chain, the clipping LEDs let you identify where the clipping occurs.
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Tape Emulator enable/disable . Enables/disables the Tape Emulator module.
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Noise. Adjusts the level of simulated tape hiss
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Rec Level. Applies a gain adjustment to the pre-processed audio signal (input level). Higher values cause increased compression/saturation.
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PB Level. Applies a final gain adjustment to the post-processed audio signal (output level).
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Tape Spd. Adjusts the simulated tape speed, which impacts the compression behavior. There are two settings:
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7.5 INS. Represents a slow tape speed, which has a more compressed and warm tone, lacking of high frequencies.
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15 INS. Represents a standard tape speed, and causes faster compression attack times.
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Bias. Magnetic tape has a non-linear response at low signal strengths. Tape bias is designed to improve the fidelity of low-signal analogue magnetic tape sound recordings by pushing the signal into the linear zone of the tape’s transfer function. This results in less low- and mid-frequency harmonic distortions. There are two settings:
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Over.  Reduces distortion in the low and mid frequency range, particularly on sibilant sounds, and interacts with the Noise level.
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Normal. Represents a standard level of distortion.
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Link. When Link is enabled, the Rec Level and PB Level knobs are linked to help maintain unity gain. When disabled, the Rec Level and PB Level knobs can be operated independently.
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